Upright Ape
The Upright Ape: A New Origin of the Species

by Aaron G. Filler, MD, PhD

Figure 1-1 Owen's Ideal Vertebra

Sir Richard Owen's Ideal Vertebra

Sir Richard Owen’s fundamental “animal crystal,” depicted the ideal as a radially symmetric object with a set of extensions in the four directions of the compass. This structure was then repeated down the length of the animals to form the Archetype.

Figure Credit -

From: Owen, R. (1848). On the Archetype and Homologies of the Vertebrate Skeleton. page 81 London, J. Van Voorst.

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