The Upright Ape: A New Origin of the Species

by Aaron G. Filler, MD, PhD

Figure 10-5 Human Plexus Neurography and Segmental Variants

Segmental variants in the human spine

Figure 10 – 5 Homeotic Variants in Humans

A – X-ray showing cervical rib at seventh cervical vertebra in human with nerve compression symptoms.

B – Magnetic resonance neurogram (MRN) showing distorted course of C8 and T1 spinal nerves. (h) - hyperintensity, (s) - spinal nerve, (g) dorsal root ganglion.

C – Comparison of human X-rays in individuals with four and six lumbar vertebrae.

D – Use MRN to identify and count spinal nerves as they combine to form plexus and distal nerve elements.

Figure credits -

A - Photograph by Aaron G. Filler © Copyright Aaron G. Filler (2007) The Upright Ape: A New Origin of the Species. Franklin Lakes, New Jersey; New Page Books.

B - Photograph by Aaron G. Filler of image reconstructed from original medical image, figure modified after: Filler, A. G., M. Kliot, F. A. Howe, et al. (1996). Application of magnetic resonance neurography in the evaluation of patients with peripheral nerve pathology. Journal of Neurosurgery 85(2): 299-309.

C - Modified, after: Filler, A. G. (1993). Evolution of the sacrum in hominoids. Surgical Disorders of the Sacrum. J. R. Doty and S. S. Rengachary. New York, N.Y., Thieme Medical Publishers: 13-20. Reprinted with permission of Thieme.

B/D - Modified, after: Filler, A. G., K. R. Maravilla et al (2004). MR neurography and muscle MR imaging for image diagnosis of disorders affecting the peripheral nerves and musculature. Neurologic Clinics 22(3): 643-82. Reproduced by permission of Elsevier.

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